"Recent deliberate exposure of the civilian population of the United States to Bacillus anthracis spores by means of the United States Postal Service revealed a gap in the nation's overall preparedness against bioterrorism. These attacks uncovered an unmet need for tests to rapidly diagnose, vaccines and immunotherapies to prevent, and drugs and biologics to cure disease caused by agents of bioterrorism. An important component of the overall effort to fulfill these needs is biomedical research, and in this regard, we need a substantial and accelerated research and development agenda to accomplish short- and long-term goals aimed at protection of the United States and the world population against present and future attacks by these agents...The NIAID [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases] research and development plan comprises a broad and comprehensive agenda with the ultimate goal of providing a strong research base that translates into effective products to combat agents of bioterrorism. The scientific needs and areas of NIAID research emphasis have been divided into six sections: Biology of the Microbe, Therapeutics Host Response, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Research Resources. As detailed below, the research agenda includes specific milestones directed at immediate goals as well as crucial enhancement of information and capability to deal with any present or future threats from biologic agents directed toward the civilian population."
NIH Publication No. 03-5306
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases : http://www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/