Phase II Report on Intelligent Software Decoys: Intelligent Software Decoy Tools for Cyber Counterintelligence and Security Countermeasures [open pdf - 390KB]
"One part of our research on the theory of deception (Rowe and Rothstein, 2004) looked at the classic deception methods of conventional warfare: concealment, camouflage, ruses, demonstrations, feints, false and planted information, lies, displays; and insight. Of the nine, concealment and camouflage of operations (as opposed to data) are difficult in cyberspace since so much of it is black and white: Either a file exists or not. Then domain name servers are quite willing to tell adversaries about what resources exist. Ruses are not helpful in cyberwarfare because identity theft is easy and lacks surprise. Demonstrations are hard to make convincing and likely counterproductive since shows of strength encourage attacks which cannot be defended. Feints are not helpful because it is so difficult to localize an enemy for a counterattack in cyberspace. False and planted information such as posting fake attack methods on hacker bulletin boards is certainly possible, but it may turn out to be easy to confirm most statements about cyberspace with sufficient time."
Naval Postgraduate School, Dudley Knox Library: http://www.nps.edu/Library/index.aspx