From the thesis abstract: "In March of 2002, through the Homeland Security Presidential Directive 3, the Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) was developed. The original intent of the HSAS was to provide a warning mechanism for the federal government; other state and local agency responses were voluntary. However, the intent expanded to include a warning system for local, state, federal agencies, the private sector and the general public. Five orange alerts later, the confusion continues with a mix of complacency and misunderstanding. State and local officials complain about the general nature of the intelligence and the lack of specificity directed at regions or targets. The cost of orange protective measures is adding up into the billions of dollars. Warnings specific to New York City have a different value in Utah. Solutions require a new federal intelligence culture with a new name and location under the direction of the Department of Homeland Security distributing specific intelligence. We need highly trained intelligence analysts working with multi-agency state or metropolitan fusion centers. The media should help in educating the public on the HSAS and promoting volunteer organizations, encouraging participation to assist in Homeland Security and to reduce the fear of a catastrophic event. Customized HSAS should be developed for each community, state and private sector business to better utilize protective resources. Protective measures should be implemented with specific intelligence to support the elevation of the HSAS."
Naval Postgraduate School, Dudley Knox Library: http://www.nps.edu/Library/index.aspx