Challenges of the Global Century: Report of the Project on Globalization and National Security   [open pdf - 3MB]

"This report presents the results of an 18-month research project designed to assess the strategic consequences of globalization and its implications for U.S. national security and defense policy. The project was conducted by the Institute for National Strategic Studies at the National Defense University and sponsored by the Department of the Navy. It brought together a diverse, interdisciplinary group of experts from the United States and abroad. Whereas many observers initially saw globalization as wholly positive, we found that its effects are mixed and uneven across different regions and within various countries, yielding both beneficial and detrimental changes in the international system. Moreover, globalization will continue to interact with old and new geopolitics to help lessen some tensions but aggravate others. The key challenge is shaping the interplay of globalization, old geopolitics, and new transnational threats so that the 21st century, the first truly Global Century, is both peaceful and productive. Globalization has many positive attributes. It helps create a wealthier world economy, promotes communications, and stimulates technological innovation, including sophisticated information systems. It also rewards good governance, fosters more universal political participation, creates new markets, and encourages multilateral cooperation. However, especially in the short term, globalization is associated with a widening income gap and painful social upheavals in many places. It transmits financial information so rapidly that shocks become contagious. In these circumstances, it can both arouse anger at industrial democracies and facilitate the growth of international crime and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Globalization does not stop wars, prevent aggression, end arms races, erase centuries of hatred, or eradicate power politics."

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