Mass: Evolving Tool of the U.S. Operational Artist   [open pdf - 3MB]

This monograph discusses the change in the use of mass by U.S. operational artists. As GEN Donn Starry observed, use of military force is based on certain operational concepts. If this in true and the traditional US concept of mass is in limited by domestic fiscal and global threat requirements, then one would expect a change in the US use of military force. By discussing the operational-level employment of mass in the US Civil War, WWII European Theater, and Operation Desert Storm, it is shown that US operational artists will probably strive to create the same effects of past mass use, despite a decrease in the means of mass. Maneuver, asymmetric attack, and combined operations are but three methods for achieving similar large-mass effects, required by the US operational-level warfighting style. This monograph is divided into two sections. The first section discusses the 'physics' of mass and related equations. It also includes the 'theory' of mass developed from Napoleonic warfare by Clausewitz and Jomini. The last part explains how Grant's 1864 Campaign set the stage for a unique US concept of mass, much different from its Napoleonic counterpart. The second section uses three test criteria to explore further changes in the use of mass. Two campaigns are used - WWII European Theater and Operation DESERT STORM.

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Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC): http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/
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