The purpose of this primer is to provide the design community and school administrators with the basic principles and techniques to make a school that is safe from terrorist attacks. FEMA 428 includes information on how to conduct a threat/ risk assessment, prepare site layout and building design, and create school safety plans. It also includes a brief discussion on blast theory and CBR measures that can be taken to mitigate school vulnerabilities, as well as a standalone description of the concept of safe rooms within schools that will resist CBR and blast threats." The primer "provides guidance to protect students, faculty, staff, and their school building from terrorist attacks. It also provides guidance to the building science community of architects and engineers working for local institutions on school projects. This document is intended for use by schools who feel that they are at risk to terrorist attacks. It provides necessary guidance to those who desire to increase the performance of their school and related infrastructure." "Protecting a school building and grounds from physical attack is a significant challenge because the ability to design, construct, renovate, operate, and maintain the facility is spread across numerous building users, infrastructure systems, and many building design codes." "Schools may or may not be the targets of terrorism, but they are certain to be affected by terrorism, whether directly or indirectly."