The role that the emerging distributed cyberinfrastructure science might play in responding to unexpected events was explored in a workshop sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Cal-(IT)2 and the UCSD Jacobs School hosted a group of about 60 computer scientists, engineers, social scientists, and members of the emergency response communities from February 25 to 27, 2003 in La Jolla, CA to discuss the future contributions of technology to homeland security and the most productive research and development environments in which to cultivate that potential. At the workshop, participants defined the cyberinfrastructure as a layer between fundamental components and applications; a layer that empowers the federation of distributed resources - such as people, expertise, computational tools and services, data, information sensors and actuators - to create virtual organizations or teams that reduce constraints of distance and time. Prodded by Dr. Peter Freeman's opening comments asking the workshop to "focus not on building the cyberinfrastructure, but on applying it," the participants discussed how the cyberinfrastructure might be used to support the unique needs of homeland security. Four primary applications of the cyberinfrastructure were identified that address needs that are critical to homeland security. They were: Ubiquitous Vision and Sensing; Syndromic Surveillance; Information Integration, Sharing and Visualization; and Enabling the Ecology of Virtual Organizations. Seven recommendations were developed to help ensure that these potential applications of the cyberinfrastructure could become a reality; they are discussed in this paper.