Integrated Emergency Management: The Roles of Federal, State, and Local Government with Implications for Homeland Security [open pdf - 260KB]
History, tradition, and necessity have established the roles of the federal, state, and local governments in Integrated Emergency Management. Disasters and emergencies have frequently tested the system in real world situations. However, new challenges will demand even greater levels of performance from all levels of government. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, changed the face of Integrated Emergency Management in fundamental ways. Before then, those concerned with dealing with disasters focused primarily on relatively familiar natural or environmental disasters. The nation had become comfortable with its ability to deal with disasters. In the wake of 9/11, Americans can no longer take for granted their security, invulnerability, health, and safety within the borders of the United States. Terrorist organizations have demonstrated their ability to strike U.S. shores, using innovative techniques and weapons. The collective efforts of the federal, state, and local governments across the United States can work together effectively and efficiently to meet this new threat. Integrated Emergency Management would provide the framework to allow government and non-government organizations to work together to prepare for, combat, and recover from terrorist attacks as well as other disasters. This concept allows for the unique competencies of each level of government to come to bear to respond effectively to disasters.
Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC): http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/
Murray, Williamson. National Security Challenges for the 21st Century. Carlisle, PA: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 2003, ch. 11.