On February 4 and 5, 2002, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened the Blue Ribbon Panel on Bioterrorism and Its Implications for Biomedical Research. This panel of experts was brought together by NIAID to provide objective expertise on the Institute's future Biodefense research agenda, which is articulated in this document. Specifically, the panel was asked to provide the following guidance to NIAID: Assess the current research sponsored by NIAID related to the development of effective measures to counter the health consequences of bioterrorism; Identify goals for the highest priority areas for immediate, intermediate, and long-term research related to Biodefense; and Make recommendations on the role of NIAID in achieving these priorities. The content of the research agenda that follows reflects the panel's recommendations. Specific goals for each pathogen are articulated within each chapter and include priorities for immediate as well as intermediate/long-term research. The introduction includes general recommendations that are applicable for all areas of NIAID Biodefense research.