China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues [Updated July 22, 2003]   [open pdf - 158KB]

Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the U.S. interest in reducing the role of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China's technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, such as Iran, North Korea, and Libya. This CRS Report discusses the national security problem of China's role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response, including legislation, since the mid-1990s. A table summarizes the U.S. sanctions imposed on PRC entities for weapons proliferation. The Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) has reported that China remains a "key supplier" of weapons technology - particularly missile or chemical technology. On seven occasions, the Bush Administration has imposed sanctions on PRC entities for transfers (related to ballistic missiles, chemical weapons, and cruise missiles) to Pakistan and Iran, under the Arms Export Control Act, Export Administration Act, Iran Nonproliferation Act, Iran-Iraq Arms Nonproliferation Act, and Executive Order 12938. President Bush is whether to waive the missile proliferation sanctions imposed in September 2001. On May 23, June 26, and July 30, 2003, the Administration imposed sanctions on PRC entities for missile proliferation, signaling U.S. frustrations with China. China's cooperation is also sought on North Korea.

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CRS Report for Congress, RL31555
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