Theater Missile Defense: Indigenous Programs and Interest Among U.S. Friends and Allies [May 5, 1994] [open pdf - 2MB]
The threat posed by weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery, especially missiles, is a growing international concern. Most nations seek to deal with this threat through a combination of arms control and military measures. Only a few allies and friends of the United States, however, appear apprehensive and are considering or seeking to acquire advanced theater missile defense (TMD) capabilities to deal with these threats. Some nations are satisfied with the limited TMD capability they have in the Patriot antitactical missile system, which is designed to defend small areas. Some nations in Europe, such as France and Germany, are beginning to think about acquiring TMD to defend troops they may have deployed overseas in peacekeeping roles, for example. Likewise, nations such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan are considering TMD development and procurement in response to perceived regional threats. But only in the case of Israel does a U.S. friend or ally appear committed to acquiring additional TMD capabilities. TMD efforts among U.S. allies and friends are revealing. Most countries who have acquired Patriot antitactical missile systems have negotiated offset agreements that ensure there is not an excessive flow of resources or money out of their country. A number of countries have also received contracts from the United States to conduct TMD research and development, investing relatively little of their own resources. There is little other TMD cooperation among U.S. allies and friends, and the only indigenous TMD programs in other countries remain simply options as they upgrade their alr- defense capabilities.
CRS Report for Congress, 94-379