In April 1998, Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen issued the Fiscal Years 2000-2005 Defense Planning Guidance, which directed the Department to conduct the Reserve Component Employment 2005 (RCE-05) Study. The study reviewed employment of the Reserve Component (RC), and developed several recommendations to enhance the role of the RC in the full range of military missions from homeland defense to major theater wars (MTWs). The study examined how to make the RC easier to access and use, and how to better train, equip, and manage it to ensure effective mission fulfillment. In examining the RC role in the future, the RCE-05 Study focused on three areas: homeland defense, smaller-scale contingencies, and MTWs. While the study evaluated several initiatives in each area, certain key themes emerged as particularly important to ensuring an effective future Total Force. Suggestions for new ways to involve the RC that are set forth in this report include: assisting in the management of consequences of attacks within the United States involving nuclear, chemical or biological weapons; protecting critical infrastructure throughout the United States from physical and information operations attacks; participating in manning a national missile defense system should one be deployed; providing additional high-demand/low-density capabilities for SSCS; assuming a greater role in sustained operations like the one being conducted in Bosnia; augmenting critical combat capabilities in specific warfighting areas; integrating the Reserve component more fully into the deliberate warplans; and developing post-mobilization training standards and deployment timelines for Army National Guard Divisions.