Effects, Targets and Tools: A Primer for U.S. Strategy and an Application Examining the Security Dynamics of Northeast Asia [open pdf - 442KB]
This study develops and applies an effects-based model for US security strategy in Northeast Asia. International security theories and broad military strategies shape policy, but strategists need more specific tools. To address this analytical problem, effects-based concepts from military doctrine are blended with general theoretical distinctions to yield an Effects, Targets, and Tools (ETT) operating framework for strategy. To use the ETT framework, a strategist locates desired effects along two spectra defined in terms of preventing or causing behavior. Desired effects toward adversaries are presented as a spectrum of deterrence-compliance, or defense-coercion, depending on the tools used to achieve those effects. Desired effects toward partners are similarly presented as dissuasion-persuasion, or security inducement. Targets to achieve such effects are chosen to affect an adversary's or partner's will or capabilities. Tools used to influence targets are defined as psychological, which support the effects of deterrence-compliance (adversary) or dissuasion-persuasion (partner), or physical in nature, which support the effects of defense-coercion (adversary) or security-inducement (partner).
INSS Occasional Paper 50