As the new millennium begins the United States finds itself facing a much-diminished Russian competitor that still holds a significant advantage in at least one category of weapons of mass destruction; non-strategic nuclear weapons (NSNW). Russia still has thousands of these warheads, as well as multiple means for their delivery. Despite the difficulties associated with establishing compliance with non-binding unilateral initiatives, the signs seem to indicate that Russia has not completely honored its PNI commitments of a decade ago. In fact, Russia appears to be adjusting its national security doctrine to place even greater emphasis on nuclear weapons. Meanwhile, the United States is trying to decide what value such weapons provide to its own security, and is considering whether to keep or eliminate its remaining stockpile. As part of this consideration, the U.S. government is debating the role of arms control in stabilizing the strategic (and sub-strategic) balances with Russia and China in Europe and Asia. This book addresses many of the fundamental issues surrounding non-strategic nuclear weapons. It is the result of a conference on NSNW held November 2-3, 2000 at the Airlie Center in Warrenton, Virginia. Some 75 experts in arms control, nuclear weapons, and national security strategy from both sides of the political spectrum attended the workshop, which featured formal panel presentations and lively discussion on the topic. The conference was hosted by the National Security Policy Division, Nuclear and Counter-proliferation Directorate, Headquarters United States Air Force (AF/XONP). Most of the chapters in this book are the result of presentations at the conference.