This report, Protecting America's Ports, by Bruce Taylor and Pat Kaufman describes the "problem and context for port security and identified promising practices based on the expert opinion and experience of port personnel. […] The resulting research offers valuable insights into practices used in a variety of ports. In the future, by building on the findings, researchers will be in a better position to evaluate the effectiveness of the security initiatives. […] Because little was known about the nature of anti-terrorist activities in the nation's ports or which security practices might be worthy of further examination and testing, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) funded the Police Executive Research Forum to identify promising local practices to safeguard America's ports against terrorist attacks. The researchers used an exploratory or descriptive case study methodology to analyze interorganizational relationships in port security operations between 2003 and 2006. Because port security practices have not been evaluated, even with non-rigorous methods, they took a basic qualitative approach to learn what we do not know, gain an elementary understanding of the challenges and create a foundation for future research, which the researchers hope will include traditional evaluation methods, such as quantitative surveys and randomized control trials."
National Institute of Justice: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/
NIJ Journal (March 2009), no.262