"Military writers discuss IW in terms of 'information dominance' over an enemy, which is described as maintaining and applying a superior understanding of the battlefield situation. Strategic writers discuss IW as the next 'paradigm' of modern warfare, and they quote military thinkers from Sun Tzu to Clausewitz and examples from Xenophon's 'March of the 10,000' to the Gulf war. The concept of information dominance is again raised, in a related but different sense, as a means to identify the enemy's 'centers of gravity' against which force can be most productively applied, while preventing an enemy from knowing one's own critical points. Finally, there have been many discussions of IW attack and defense as related to telecommunications and computer networks, often but not always at the national level. The focus of these discussions is the vulnerability of such networks to penetration, exploitation, and degradation; the magnification of these actions owing to a modern country's dependence on such networks; and the potential application of these actions in warfare, crises, international competition, and criminal activities. These different points of view incorporate common elements, but a rigorous definition of the concept of IW has not yet evolved. Before we can identify and assess capabilities for IW and related activities, we need a definition, or a model, that is sufficiently concrete and specific to serve as a working aid."
Center for the Study of Intelligence: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/index.html
Studies in Intelligence (Semiannual Edition 1997), no.1