"The U.S. military has been building up forces on the U.S. territory of Guam to increase deterrence and power projection for possible responses to crises and disasters, counter-terrorism, and contingencies in support of South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, or elsewhere in Asia. But the defense buildup on Guam is moderate. China has concerns about the defense buildup. Guam's role has increased with plans to withdraw some U.S. forces from Japan and South Korea. In 2006, the United States and Japan agreed on a 'Roadmap' to strengthen their alliance, including a buildup on Guam to cost $10.3 billion, with Japan contributing 60%. The goals are to start the related construction on Guam by 2010 and to complete relocation of 8,000 Marines and their 9,000 dependents from Okinawa to Guam by 2014. On February 17, 2009, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Tokyo and signed the bilateral 'Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan Concerning the Implementation of the Relocation of the III Marine Expeditionary Force Personnel and Their Dependents From Okinawa to Guam' that reaffirmed the 'Roadmap' of May 1, 2006. […]. On May 7, 2009, days before Japan's Diet ratified the relocation agreement with the United States, Defense Secretary Gates submitted to Congress the proposed defense budget for FY2010. As part of the realignment of the Global Defense Posture, he requested $378 million to start construction in Guam to support the relocation of 8,000 Marines from Japan in order to strengthen the U.S.-Japan alliance. This amount would contribute to the total U.S. cost of $4.18 billion for the relocation."
CRS Report for Congress, RS22570