The following is an overview of the major scholarly arguments and U.S. government activities to date concerning environment and security ideas. This broad ranging treatment is intended to provide a baseline for discussions. Given this wide scope, no one academic argument or policy manifestation is treated with the attention each individually deserves. We divide the field into three main categories: (1) debates regarding environment and new definitions of security, (2) debates regarding environment and traditional definitions of security, and (3) debates regarding how security institutions affect the environment. Within each of these categories, we detail arguments from what we loosely refer to as the proponents and critics of the various conceptions. It should be emphasized that considerable diversity in opinion persists both within and among these three categories regarding the degree of "threats" and the prioritization of issues.
Environmental Threats and National Security: An International Challenge to Science and Technology: Proceedings from the Workshop at Monterey, California, December 1996