"Carbon capture and sequestration (or storage)--known as CCS--has attracted interest as a measure for mitigating global climate change because large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from fossil fuel use in the United States are potentially available to be captured and stored underground or prevented from reaching the atmosphere. Large, industrial sources of CO2, such as electricity-generating plants, are likely initial candidates for CCS because they are predominantly stationary, single-point sources. Electricity generation contributes over 40% of U.S. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. [...]. The increase in funding for CCS provided for in ARRA [American Recovery and Reinvestment Act] and by other economic incentives may lead to less expensive and more effective technologies for capturing large quantities of CO2. Without a carbon price or a regulatory requirement to cap CO2 emissions, however, it will be difficult to predict or evaluate how the technology would be deployed throughout the U.S. energy sector. By comparison, transporting, injecting, and storing CO2 underground may be less daunting. A large pipeline infrastructure for transporting CO2 could be very costly, however, and considerable uncertainty remains over how large quantities of injected CO2 would be permanently stored underground. To help resolve these uncertainties, DOE has initiated large-scale CO2 injection tests in a variety of geologic reservoirs that are to take place over the next several years."
CRS Report for Congress, RL33801