Taking Measure: U.S. Defense Civil Preparedness Agency Annual Report 1975   [open pdf - 8MB]

"Over the past years, the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) pursued various means of fulfilling joint obligations with the State and local governments in developing and maintaining nationwide civil preparedness. At State and local level the prime objective was the same-but ideas and methods for reaching the always-elusive goal sometimes didn't mesh with Federal concepts and programs. […] A few years ago, a new idea in management began to take hold; its name-participatory management. The concept wasn't really new, but as managers both in and out of government looked around, they were surprised to see how little 'participation' there was by everyone concerned in various systems. DCPA encouraged participatory management in civil preparedness-and took a good hard look at its own programming and management system. DCPA's system was functional but it was cast in the old mold; it was top heavy in superstructure, designed around national objectives; and weak at the foundations, with funds trickling down to communities in thinly sliced allotments based on those national objectives; and with little hard data and other information on which to determine total local needs. After a full year of development, DCPA now has an 'objectives oriented' system, based on a good, firm foundation of finding out local needs in relation to the overall objectives of the national program."

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United States Emergency Management Institute: http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/
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