"This progress report on Federal Civil Defense Administration and the national Civil Defense program during 1952 is one about which reasonable men may honestly differ. Some will read it with real satisfaction in comparing our current state of readiness with that of just one year ago. Others, contrasting our present state of civilian readiness with what would be required in the event of all-out attack on this country with new and more powerful weapons, will take this report as reason for justified alarm. Civil Defense has made real progress despite its newness, lack of funds, and other handicaps. Yet, those who live with Civil Defense are acutely aware of how much more remains to be done before America has the kind of civil defense that will be a formidable force either to keep the peace or to help win a war. Civil Defense preparedness can be a major force in helping keep the peace. This vital reason for civil defense in being has been determined by the National Security Council in weighing the balance of security forces in modern war. Unity, strength, and preparedness on the homefront can help prevent attack on this country. On December 23, 1949, President Truman announced that an atomic explosion had recently taken place in the Soviet Union. From that moment on the program for civil preparedness, particularly against nuclear weapons, became an urgent need for our total national security program."
United States Emergency Management Institute: http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/