From the Summary: "In February 2006, Ugandans voted in the first multi-party elections in almost 26 years. President Yoweri Museveni and his ruling National Revolutionary Movement (NRM) parliamentary candidates won a decisive victory over opposition candidate Kizza Besigye and the Forum for Democracy Coalition. Nevertheless, poll results showed a notable decline in support for President Museveni from previous elections. International election observers did not condemn the election results, nor did they fully endorse the electoral process. Critics charged the government with intimidating the opposition during the pre-election period, and Besigye spent much of the campaign period in jail. The election followed a controversial move by the Ugandan parliament in July 2005 to remove the constitutional two-term limit on the presidency. In the north, the government of Uganda has long fought the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), an armed rebel group backed by the government of Sudan. Through over 20 years of civil war, the brutal insurgency has created a humanitarian crisis that has displaced over 1.5 million and resulted in the abduction of over 20,000 children. In 2006-07, the government of Uganda and the LRA have been actively engaged in an effort to resolve the conflict peacefully. The Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) has been mediating the talks since June 2006. The negotiations have had some success in halting the fighting. In August 2006, the government of Uganda and the LRA signed a Cessation of Hostilities Agreement. The cessation of hostilities has allowed an estimated 400,000 displaced people to return to their homes."
CRS Report for Congress, RL33701