Combating Terrorism: How Five Foreign Countries Are Organized to Combat Terrorism, Report to Congressional Requesters [open pdf - 198KB]
"In fiscal year 1999, the federal government spent about $10 billion to combat terrorism. Over 40 federal departments, agencies, and bureaus have a role in combating terrorism. The amount of spending and the large number of agencies involved have prompted some Members of Congress to question who is in charge of U.S. efforts to combat terrorism, how the federal government is organized to prevent and respond to terrorism on U.S. soil, and how resources are being allocated. Based on these concerns, and recognizing that other countries have had more experience dealing with terrorist attacks within their borders, you asked us to provide information on (1) how other governments are organized to combat terrorism and (2) how they allocate their resources to combat terrorism. We selected Canada, France, Germany, Israel, and the United Kingdom for the focus of our work. Over the years, we have found problems with efforts to combat terrorism in the United States. For example, we reported in 1999 that the overall command (i.e., who is in charge) at a terrorist incident was not clearly designated or agreed to among federal, state, and local governments. In 1998, we reported that some federal resources to combat terrorism were being increased without a clear link to likely threats and that programs were being developed based on vulnerabilities, not likely terrorist attacks. We also reported in 1999 that these programs potentially duplicated."
Government Accountability Office (GAO): http://www.gao.gov/