Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy [November 10, 2009] [open pdf - 927KB]
"Upon taking office, the Obama Administration faced a deteriorating security environment in Afghanistan, despite a build-up of U.S. forces there in preceding years. Signs of deterioration have included an expanded militant presence in some areas, increasing numbers of civilian and military deaths, Afghan and international disillusionment with corruption in the government of Afghan President Hamid Karzai, and the ease of infiltration of Taliban militants from safe havens in Pakistan. Building on assessments completed in the latter days of the Bush Administration, the Obama Administration conducted a 'strategic review,' the results of which were announced on March 27, 2009. [...] Of the approximately 68,000 U.S. forces in Afghanistan, about 56,000 are part of the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) that operates throughout Afghanistan, and the remainder are under the separate U.S.-led Operation Enduring Freedom. U.S. and partner forces also run 26 regional enclaves to secure reconstruction (Provincial Reconstruction Teams, PRTs), and are expanding an Afghan National Army and reforming an Afghan National Police force-the two combined now total about 175,000. The United States has provided about $40 billion in assistance to Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban, of which about $18 billion was to equip and train these Afghan forces. Breakdowns are shown in the tables at the end. See also CRS Report RL33627, 'NATO in Afghanistan: A Test of the Transatlantic Alliance,' by Vincent Morelli and Paul Belkin; and CRS Report RL32686, 'Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy,' by Christopher M. Blanchard."
CRS Report for Congress, RL30588