This journal features articles on systems that can be used for waste treatment and cleaning up underground contaminants. From the text: "Beneath hundreds of industrial and government sites across the United States, pools of such contaminants as hydrocarbon fuels, cleaning solvents, and industrial chemicals threaten drinking water supplies. In a fairly typical example of this problem, between 1952 and 1979, tens of thousands of liters of gasoline leaked from an underground tank at a former Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) filling station. Researchers from LLNL and from the University of California at Berkeley used a unique technology -- dynamic underground stripping -- to rapidly remove some 29,000 liters of gasoline in less than a year. This technology applies heat -- by steam and electricity -- to vaporize trapped contaminants in the soil. Once vaporized, the contaminants are removed by vacuum extraction. These processes are monitored and guided by underground imaging. Dynamic underground stripping is relatively inexpensive and promises to be the cleanup technology of choice at numerous sites in the future."
Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory: https://www.llnl.gov
Energy and Technology Review (May 1994)