Limits and Prospects of Military Analogies for Homeland Security: Goldwater-Nichols and Network-Centric Warfare [open pdf - 219KB]
This report is part of chapter two of five chapters in the series: Threats at Our Threshold: Homeland Defense and Homeland Security in the New Century: A Compilation of the Proceedings of the First Annual Homeland Defense and Homeland Security Conference. The following is taken from the introduction of the report: "Since the attacks of 9/11, the United States has sought to strengthen its ability to prevent terrorist attacks and respond to high-consequence events affecting the U.S. homeland. Washington's tactic of choice to improve counterterrorism and homeland security has been to reorganize the federal government. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was created in 2003 to rationalize assets and centralize activities related to borders, domestic asset protection, preparedness and response, information integration and dissemination, and science and technology. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) was created to better coordinate the fragmented intelligence community Washington's decision to turn to far-reaching reorganization in response to new national security challenges has significant historical precedent. The National Security Act of 1947 created the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to help the United States meet the security challenges it faced after World War II. It took another decade, however, to establish the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), deterrence and various other critical institutions and concepts to fight the Cold War effectively. For every step in the right direction, there were missteps, trial and error. It took another 39 years before Congress passed the Goldwater-Nichols Act to foster 'jointness' among the military services, something that Dwight Eisenhower had lobbied for both as a general and as President. U.S. efforts to address homeland security and counterterrorism represent the most significant federal reorganization since 1947. But the 'big bang' creation of both the DHS and DNI are not sufficient. Reorganization is only a step in refashioning government and society to meet the challenges of global terrorism and homeland security."
Threats at Our Threshold: Homeland Defense and Homeland Security in the New Century: A Compilation of the Proceedings of the First Annual Homeland Defense and Homeland Security Conference