This report is part of chapter three of five chapters in the series: Threats at Our Threshold: Homeland Defense and Homeland Security in the New Century: A Compilation of the Proceedings of the First Annual Homeland Defense and Homeland Security Conference. The following is taken from the introduction of the report: "Despite a number of studies and recommendations conducted in the last several years on potential changes to the size, shape, and focus of the National Guard and federal Reserves, the Department of Defense (DoD) has generally made only gradual changes to the Reserve Component. While the transformation of the Guard and Reserves has been particularly gradual in the area of homeland defense and civil support, DoD and Congress now have the opportunity and the responsibility to make real changes that will ensure the future health of the National Guard and Reserves. Since the September 11th attacks, the spotlight has been shining brightly on the National Guard and Reserves. In the aftermath of the attacks, the nation relied heavily on the Guard and the Reserves to help protect the homeland. National Guard troops provided airport security and critical infrastructure protection in the weeks following the attacks until they could be replaced with civilian security. The Air National Guard flew extensive combat air patrols in the months following September 11th and has continued to play a key role in the air sovereignty mission for the past five years. The DoD has also mobilized Reserve Component units extensively to serve in overseas operations as part of the war against Islamic extremism. Reserve units were quickly mobilized and deployed to Afghanistan in the fall of 2001, and since 2003 nearly every combat brigade of the National Guard has been deployed as well."
Threats at Our Threshold: Homeland Defense and Homeland Security in the New Century: A Compilation of the Proceedings of the First Annual Homeland Defense and Homeland Security Conference