Hazards of Ammonia Releases at Ammonia Refrigeration Facilities (Update)   [open pdf - 95KB]

"The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing this Alert as part of its ongoing effort to protect human health and the environment by preventing chemical accidents. We are striving to learn the causes and contributing factors associated with chemical accidents and to prevent their recurrence. Major chemical accidents cannot be prevented solely through regulatory requirements. Rather, understanding the fundamental root causes, widely disseminating the lessons learned, and integrating these lessons learned into safe operations are also required. EPA publishes Alerts to increase awareness of possible hazards. It is important that facilities, State Emergency Response Commissions (SERCs), Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs), emergency responders, and others review this information and take appropriate steps to minimize risk. This document does not substitute for EPA's regulations, nor is it a regulation itself. It cannot and does not impose legally binding requirements on EPA, states, or the regulated community, and the measures it describes may not apply to a particular situation based upon the circumstances. This guidance does not represent final agency action and may change in the future, as appropriate. […]Anhydrous ammonia is used as a refrigerant in mechanical compression systems at a large number of industrial facilities. Ammonia is a toxic gas under ambient conditions. Many parts of a refrigeration system contain ammonia liquefied under pressure. Releases of ammonia have the potential for harmful effects on workers and the public. If the ammonia is under pressure, risk of exposure increases since larger quantities of the refrigerant have the potential for rapid release into the air. Also, some explosions have been attributed to releases of ammonia contaminated with lubricating oil. This Alert further discusses these potential hazards and the steps that can be taken to minimize risks. This Alert should be reviewed by personnel who operate and maintain refrigeration systems, managers of facilities, and emergency responders."

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