High-Energy Storms Shape Puerto Rico   [open pdf - 346KB]

"Hugo arrived in mid-September 1989 as a category-four hurricane with sustained winds of 140 miles per hour. The eye of the hurricane passed over the eastern end of the island travelling west-northwest. Hurricane Hugo caused tremendous damage to the infrastructure of eastern Puerto Rico. Over 80 percent of the wooden structures on the islands of Culebra and Vieques were destroyed, and more than 30,000 people were left homeless. Property damage is estimated to exceed $1 billion. Despite the huge losses to infra-structure, the long-term effects of Hugo on the coastal environment are considered to be minimal. Within several months following the hurricane, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) marine geologists cooperating with Duke University initiated a reconnaissance study to assess the impact of major storm events on coastal resources and coastal environments."

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U.S. Geological Survey: http://www.usgs.gov/
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