Homeland Security Advisory System: An Assessment of Its Ability to Formulate a Risk Message [open pdf - 164KB]
From the thesis abstract: "The Homeland Security Advisory System was conceived in 2003. Within seven years, the system has become marginalized, even though the country continues to be at war with the forces of terrorism. The reason for this is that the system as designed does not allow for the successful crafting of a complete warning message. A warning message needs to be specific enough to allow the warning recipient to make the appropriate linkages between the warning message and the physical and social manifestations of the threat. This linkage allows the recipient to form his own unique risk reality. Once that is formed, the recipient may be motivated to take appropriate precautions to counter the threat. A warning message that does not allow for the formation of a risk reality can never be effective because the recipient will fail to internalize the risk and thus fail to take the appropriate action to counter the threat."
Naval Postgraduate School, Dudley Knox Library: http://www.nps.edu/Library/index.aspx