"The status of Jews in Russia in the post-Soviet era is complex. The collapse of the Soviet Union has created new opportunities for Jews to practice their religion and culture. The kind of officially organized, state-sponsored discrimination that characterized the Soviet and tsarist eras, has virtually disappeared. Yet the climate of political and economic uncertainty in Russia has permitted the growth of anti-Semitism among individuals, parties, and organizations. Of equal importance, it is not always clear that the government is able -- or willing -- to take action against those who harass or physically attack Jews. For historical reasons, most Jews, like their Russian counterparts, are reluctant to report incidents of harassment or violence to government officials. Many police and lower level bureaucrats retained from the Soviet era have not received retraining in human rights or respect for the rule of law. […]. Although Jews who are religious, political or cultural activists may be more likely to be the targets of such attacks, Jews who have no known activist affiliations can also be at risk. Claims from Russian Jews must be assessed primarily on the basis of nationality, although religion and imputed political opinion (pro-democracy or anti-communism) may also be facets of the claim. Acts of harassment and violence against Jews are still sporadic in the post-Soviet era, but no-one is automatically at risk, or automatically safe from potential persecution: each case must be determined on a careful assessment of the applicant's own situation (and of those similarly situated, such as relatives, colleagues, friends, neighbors, etc.)."
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services: http://www.uscis.gov/