"The Commerce Department's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has advised the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) that it has identified five 'foundational' sets of standards for Smart Grid interoperability and cyber security that are ready for consideration by federal and state energy regulators. The standards, produced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), focus on the information models and protocols important to efficient and reliable grid operations as well as cyber security. In a letter to FERC Chairman Jon Wellinghoff, NIST's national coordinator for Smart Grid interoperability, George Arnold, said the standards 'are essential to uniform and interoperable communication systems throughout the grid and will accommodate the evolution of the grid and the integration of new technologies.' In the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, Congress directed NIST to coordinate development of communication protocols and other standards to achieve an interoperable Smart Grid --a nationwide electric power system that enables two-way flows of energy and information. Under EISA, once it determines sufficient consensus has been achieved, FERC is charged with instituting rulemaking proceedings to adopt the standards necessary to ensure Smart Grid functionality and interoperability."