"This report discusses the actions taken by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) in the implementation of the permanent provisions of the Brady law that became effective on November 30, 1998. The Brady law requires Federal firearms licensees (FFLs or licensees), including pawnbrokers, to initiate a criminal background check through the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) prior to transferring a firearm to an unlicensed individual. ATF implements the Brady law jointly with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). ATF's two primary responsibilities with regard to Brady law implementation are as follows: ATF regulates and inspects FFLs to ensure that they comply with the Brady law; and ATF enforces the Brady law by investigating criminal violations of the Brady law and other Federal firearms laws committed by FFLs or individuals. As discussed in this report, the Brady law has proven effective both in the goal of preventing FFLs from selling firearms to potentially dangerous individuals, and in providing law enforcement with valuable information about persons who unlawfully attempt to acquire firearms."