"[According to President Obama], the United States' strategic aim in Kazakhstan is to help the country develop into a stable, secure, and democratic country that embraces free market competition and rule of law, and is a respected regional leader. Cumulative U.S. aid budgeted for Kazakhstan in fiscal years 1992 through 2008 was $1.67 billion (FREEDOM Support Act and agency funds), with Kazakhstan ranking fifth in aid among the twelve Soviet successor states. A large part of U.S. aid has supported Comprehensive Threat Reduction (CTR) programs to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Budgeted aid for FY2009 was $22.4 million, estimated aid for FY2010 was $18.9 million, and requested aid for FY2011 is $18.3 million (FREEDOM Support Act and other foreign aid, excluding Defense and Energy Department funds). The Administration request for FY2011 emphasizes aid for peace and security ($7.2 million, including funding for Foreign Military Financing and International Military Education and Training, and Non-Proliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining, and Related Programs), health ($4.6 million), and democratization ($4.2 million). Among congressional actions, foreign operations appropriations since FY2003 have forbade assistance to the government of Kazakhstan unless the Secretary of State determines and reports that Kazakhstan has significantly improved its human rights record. A waiver on national security grounds has been exercised in recent years. Reportedly responding to a U.S. appeal, the Kazakh legislature in May 2003 approved sending military engineers to assist in coalition operations in Iraq. The 27 troops trained Iraqis in demining and water purification. They pulled out of Iraq in late 2008. Since 2009, Kazakhstan has permitted air and land transit for U.S. and NATO [North Atlantic Treaty Organization] troops and equipment--as part of the Northern Distribution Network--to support stabilization operations in Afghanistan."
CRS Report for Congress, 97-1058