Since 1998, senior leadership has amplified the focus on resolution of difficulties in securing a ready and reliable access to safe and effective vaccines for use against biological warfare agents. As part of the DoD's vaccine initiative, DoD contracted with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) to select an independent panel of experts to assess the DoD acquisition of vaccine production programs and report their recommendations for improvement to the Deputy Secretary of Defense. The panel prepared a report to reflect its independent opinions for consideration by DoD. This report (at Appendix B) discusses vaccine industry constraints and concludes that the size and scope of the DoD program is too large for either DoD or industry alone. It recommends the application of a combined, integrated approach by DoD and industry, coupled with better alignment with industry best practices. The Department is studying the Panel's recommendations.