Procedures Used in Narcotics Airbridge Denial Program in Peru, 1995-2001   [open pdf - 15MB]

"In the 1990s, the US Government instituted several programs in cooperation with the Government of Peru as part of the 'war on drugs.' One program, the Airbridge Denial Program (ABDP), was designed to interrupt the transport of narcotics by civil aircraft. Under terms of this program, if an aircraft was reasonably believed to be involved in narcotics trafficking, the Peruvian Air Force was authorized to instruct the suspect aircraft to land. If the suspect aircraft failed to follow instructions after being given a series of required warnings, the Peruvian Air Force fighter could be authorized to shoot the suspect plane down. [...] From March 1995 through April 2001, the Peruvian Air Force, with the assistance of US tracker planes, shot down 15 civilian aircraft. The fifteenth shootdown involved a single-engine floatplane operated by a US missionary group. Two US citizens, a mother and her infant daughter, were killed, and the pilot was seriously wounded. [...] Examination of the events surrounding the shootdown of the missionary aircraft raised questions about whether the intercept procedures required by the PD [Presidential Determination 95-9] and MOJ [Memorandum of Justification] had been followed. The Department of Justice Criminal Division asked the CIA Office of Inspector General (OIG) to investigate CIA's [Central Intelligence Agency] role in the conduct and operation of the ABDP from 1995 to 2001. OIG reviewed documentary reporting on each of the 15 shootdowns, examined videotapes of each shootdown, and conducted more than 200 interviews of participants in the program, including CIA officers, the US air crews on the tracker planes, and the Peruvian Air Force officers and their commanders involved in the shootdowns."

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U.S. Central Intelligence Agency: https://www.cia.gov/
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