Investigation into Islamic Fundamentalism and an Assessment of Its Relationship with the Concept of Jihad [open pdf - 6MB]
"Islamic fundamentalism and Jihad are terms which have become prominent over the last two decades but are frequently misunderstood as concepts. Fundamentalism essentially means reviving Islam with its original pure principles as outlined by Mohammad and as demonstrated by his own example. Jihad means active struggle in the path of Allah both against evil and against enemies who threaten Islam. Fundamentalism is a recurring theme in Islam which is a religion of continual renewal. Frequent attempts have been made to cleanse Islam of the potential impurities of mysticism and the secular influences of nationalism and modernization. Sunni and Shia fundamentalist movements present interesting contrasts as exemplified by the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and Khomeini in Iran. The Sunnis have acted as a transnational 'conscience' of Islam without gaining power. The Shia appeal to emotion, through re-enactment of dramatic history, inspired fanatical martyrdom and produced a remarkable revolution."
Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC): http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/