U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications [March 31, 2010] [open pdf - 311KB]
"Mexico has a population of about 111 million people, making it the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the third-most populous country in the Western Hemisphere. Based on a gross domestic product (GDP) of $875 billion in 2009 (about 6% of U.S. GDP), Mexico has a free market economy with a strong export sector. Economic conditions in Mexico are important to the United States because of the proximity of Mexico to the United States, the close trade and investment interactions, and other social and political issues that are affected by the economic relationship between the two countries. The United States and Mexico have strong economic ties through the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which has been in effect since 1994. In terms of total trade, Mexico is the United States' third-largest trading partner, while the United States ranks first among Mexico's trading partners. In U.S. imports, Mexico ranks third among U.S. trading partners, after China and Canada, while in exports Mexico ranks second, after Canada. The United States is the largest source of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Mexico. These links are critical to many U.S. industries and border communities."
CRS Report for Congress, RL32934