Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress [January 10, 2003] [open pdf - 124KB]
The federal government has historically supported the open publication of federally funded research results. In cases where such results presented a challenge to national security concerns, several mechanisms have been employed. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that, in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict information flow on the international level, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control the export of items and technical information on specific lists. There is a lack of consensus regarding what is the best method to balance scientific publishing and national security. Mandatory review by federal funding agencies, either at the funding stage or before publication, is seen as a potential federally based alternative.
CRS Report for Congress, RL31695